SYNCHRONOUS AND METACHRONOUS TUMORS – A LITERATURE REVIEW
This paper aims to present the results of extensive studies on synchronous and metachronous tumors, both in order to optimize the surgical treatment of these, but also to concretize some suitable and useful screening measures for their early detection. The prognosis of cancer patients has improved over time. On the other hand, investigative methods have advanced considerably so that today are discovered tumors that could have gone unnoticed in the past. These data show why there are currently more cases of multiple cancers and their rate is steadily rising. The review will consider several studies focused on multiple tumors in terms of their localizations, manifestations, and risk factors. The first primary tumor found in a patient is called the index tumor, and the following tumors can be considered synchronous if they occurred in less than 6 months and metachronous if they occurred more than 6 months. Also, for the tumors of group IA, a variable of 4 centimeters was imposed13. Thus multiple tumors of the same tissue / organ (multicenter type A) are considered, tumors that are located at 4 cm or more of the index tumor, are histopathologically confirmed as malignant and are not metastasis or relapses of the first tumor.
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