SCREENING, DIAGNOSIS AND GLUCOSE MONITORING OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES – A BRIEF UPDATE
Diabetes is most common metabolic and clinical condition in pregnancy. The diabetes complicating pregnancy may be either preexistent (type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes or other specific forms) or gestational diabetes. International Diabetes Federation estimates that 6% of live births had some form of hyperglycemia in pregnancy and approximately 84% of it was attributable to gestational diabetes. Pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes are associated with adverse short-term and long-term maternal and fetal outcomes. In order to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes a proper diagnosis of GDM is required and carefully monitoring and control of blood glucose levels is mandatory.
 M. Schaefer, G. Songster, A. Xiang, K. Berkowitz, T.A. Buchanan, S.L. Kjos. Congenital malformations in offspring of women with hyperglycemia first detected during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol, Vol 177, pp 1165–1171, March 1997.
 International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th edn. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2019.
 S, Salar Farahvar, A. Walfisch, E. Steiner. Gestational diabetes risk factors and long-term consequences for both mother and offspring: a literature review. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab, Vol 5, pp 1-12, January 2012.
 H.D. McIntyre Catalano, C. Zhang, G. Desoye, E.R. Mathiesen, P. Damm. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Nat Rev Dis Primers vol 11, pp 47, April 2019.
 International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Consensus Panel: International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Care, vol 33, pp 676–682, April 2010.
 B.E. Metzger, P.L. Lowe, A.R. Dyer, E.R. Trimble, U. Chaovarindr et al. Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study Cooperative Research Group. Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med, vol 358, pp 1991–2002, June 2008.
 B.E. Metzger, P.L. Lowe, A.R. Dyer, E.R. Trimble, U. Chaovarindr et al. Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study: associations with neonatal anthropometrics. Diabetes, vol 58, pp 453–459, Octomber 2009.
 D.R. Hadden. Maternal blood glucose and the baby. The origins of the hyperglycaemia and pregnancy outcome study The Scott-Heron Lecture at the Royal Victoria Hospital Ulster Med J vol 70, pp 119-35, January 2002
 J.B. O'Sullivan, C.M. Mahan. Criteria for the oral glucose tolerance test in pregnancy. Diabetes vol 13, pp 278-285, April 1964
 M.W. Carpenter, D.R. Coustan. Criteria for screening tests for gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol, vol 144, pp 763-773, March 1982.
 American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care, Vol 34(Supplement 1), pp S11-S6, September 2011.
 P.J. Vandorsten, W.C. Dodson, M.A. Espeland, W.A. Grobman, J.M. Guise, et al. NIH consensus development conference: diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus. NIH Consens State Sci Statements. Vol 29, pp 1–31, March 2013.
 American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care. Vol 37(Supplement 1), pp S14-S80, July 2014.
 T.A. Hillier, K.L. Pedula, K.K. Ogasawara, K.K. Vesco, et al. A Pragmatic, Randomized Clinical Trial of Gestational Diabetes Screening. N Engl J Med; vol 384, pp 895-904, September 2021.
 S. Salar Farahvar, A. Walfisch, E. Sheiner. Gestational diabetes risk factors and long-term consequences for both mother and offspring: a literature review. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab; vol 10, pp 1-12, January 2018.
 American Diabetes Association. Management of diabetes in pregnancy: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care; vol 44(Suppl. 1), pp S200–S210, March 2021.
 F. Yu, L. Liv, Z. Liang, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring effects on maternal glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; vol 99, pp 4674– 4682, Octomber 2013.
 D.N. Voormolen, J.H. DeVries, R.M.E Sanson, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring during diabetic pregnancy (GlucoMOMS): a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Obes Metab; vol 20, pp 1894–1902, April 2018.
 S.S. Paramasivam, K. Chinna, A.K.K. Singh, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring results in lower HbA1c in Malaysian women with insulin-treated gestational diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Diabet Med; vol 35, pp 1118–1129, June 2019.
 G.R. Law, A. Alnaji, L. Alrefaii, D. Endersby, S.J. Cartland et al. Suboptimal Nocturnal Glucose Control Is Associated with Large for Gestational Age in Treated Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care; vol 42, pp 810-815, December 2019.
 R. Márquez-Pardo, I. Torres-Barea, J.A. Córdoba-Doña, D. Cruzado-Begines, L. García-Doncel, et al. Glycemic Patterns in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Is Useful Continous Glucose Monitoring at Diagnosis? Diabetes Techno Therap, vol 18, pp 271-277, July 2020.