• Tutovanu Andrei Costin UMFCD
  • George Drăghici 2Clinical Nephrology Hospital ”Dr. Carol Davila”, Bucharest, Romania
  • Sorin Mircea Oprescu 1The University of Medicine and Pharmacy ”Carol Davila”, Bucharest, Romania 3University Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania
Keywords: breast cancer, male, risk factors, diagnosis


Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease even though the incidence has increased in the last two decades. Although breast cancer most affects women, it may occur in males, being diagnosed at later stages. Men with BRCA 2 mutation have a higher risk of developing breast cancer than men in the general population. Diagnostic approaches recommendations are derived from established guidelines for breast cancer in women (FBC). A palpable mass is the most common symptom and the skeletal bones are the most common sites of metastatic recurrence in breast cancer. Male breast cancer remains an uncommon disease. Most studies on men with breast cancer are very rare. The current review was made with an aim to analyze the current diagnostic approaches of male breast cancer patients. Searches were carried out on three electronic databases (Pubmed, Medscape, ScienceDirect) using the title term “Diagnosis of male breast cancer”.


RM Ferzoco, Kh. J. Ruddy, “Optimal Delivery Of Male Breast Cancer Follow-Up Care: Improving Outcomes Breast Cancer,” Dove Med Pres. Published Online, pp. 371-379, Nov 2015.

CS Shemanko, Yi. Cong, F.Al. Desiderio, “What Is Breast In The Bone?,” Academic Editorint J Mol Sci. Published Online, pp. 1764, Oct 2016.

MP Humphries, V.Cr. Jordan,Va.Speirds, “Obesity And Male Breast Cancer: Provocative Parallels,” Bmc Med. Published Online, pp.113-134, Jun 2015

M Yalaza, Ay Inan, M. Bozer, “Male Breast Cancer,”J Breast Health. Published Online, pp. 1-8, Jan.2016.

VM Basham, JM Lipscombe, JM Ward, et al. “BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a population-based study of male breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res, R2. pp.4, Jan 2002.

R Gennari, g. Gurigliano, BA. Jereczek-Fossa, et al “Male breast cancer: a special therapeutic problem. Anything new? ,“ Int J Cancer. pp. 663-70, Feb 2004.

Z Nahleh, S Girnius, “Male breast cancer: a gender issue,” Nat

Clin Pract Oncol. pp. 428-437, Aug 2006.

.Ka Kanchan, G.S. Rodrigues, M. Kulkarni, “Male Breast Cancer: Is The Scenario Changing?,” World J Surg Oncol. Published Online. pp 52-58, Jun 2008.

L Fiala, O Coufal, V Fait, et al. “Male breast cancer: our experience,” Rozhl. Chir. pp. 612-618, Sept. 2010.

SH Giordano, Ds Cohen, Au Buzdar, et al, “Breast carcinoma in men: a population-based study,” Cancer. pp 51-57, Feb 2004.

Re Coleman. “Metastatic bone disease: clinical features, pathophysiology and treatment strategies,” Cancer Treatment Reviews. pp. 165-176, Oct 2001.

Mj Goblirdch, Pp Zwolak, Dr Clohisy “Biology of bone cancer pain,”Clinical Cancer Research. Pt.2. pp 6231s-6235s, Apr 2006.

M Cecchini, A Wetterwald, G Pluijm, et al, “Molecular and biological mechanisms of bone metastasis,” EAU Update Series. pp.214-226, Feb 2005.

R Maisano, S Pergolizzi, S Cascinu “Novel therapeutic approaches to cancer patients with bone metastasis,” Crit Rev Oncol Hematol, pp.239-250 Jan 2001.

Ma Jafari, A Olfatbakhsh, Ki Rezaei-Kalantari “A Review Of Risk Factors And Clinical And Radiological Features,” Male Breast Cancer Volume 1, Issue 4 pp.25-30, Octt 2017.

Lg Menezes, M Knuttel, L Stehouwer, et al “Magnetic Resonance Imaging In Breast Cancer: A Literature Review And Future Perspectives,” World J Clin Oncol, Published Online. Pp.61-70, May 2014.

K Kelly, J Dean, Ws Comulada, Sj Lee “Breast cancer detection using automated whole breast ultrasound and mammography in radiographically dense breasts,” Eur Radiol. pp.734-742, Aug 2010.

C Balleyguier, P Opolon, MC Mathieu, et al “New potential and applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the breast: Own investigations and review of the literature,” European journal of radiology. pp.14-23, Dec 2009.

P Lind, I Igerc, T Beyer, et al “Advantages and limitations of FDG PET in the follow-up of breast cancer,”European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. pp.125-134, Oct 2004.

N Houssami, RM Turner, M Morrow “Meta-analysis of pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgical treatment for breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res Treat. pp. 273-283, Nov 2017.

V Cuccurullo, GL Cascini, O Tamburrini “Bone metastases radiopharmaceuticals: an overview,” Curr Radiopharm, pp. 41-47, Feb 2013.

J Chop, M. Raghavan “Diagnostic imaging and image-guided therapy of skeletal metastases,” Cancer Control.pp. 102–112. Jun 2012.

V Vassiliou, D Andreopoulos, S Frangos, et al “Bone metastases: assessment of therapeutic response through radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities,” Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol),pp. 632-645, Nov 2011.

HL Yang, XM Wang, SM Deng “Diagnosis of bone metastases: a meta-analysis comparing “18FDG PET, CT, MRI and bone scintigraphy,“,Eur Radiol. pp. 2604-2617, Mar 2011.

Yu HH, YY Tsai, SE Hoffe. “Overview of diagnosis and management of metastatic disease to bone,” Cancer Control. pp 84–91, Dec 2012.

C Gutierrez, R Schiff “Her 2: Biology, Detection, And Clinical Implications,” Arch Pathol Lab Med pp. 55-62, Jan 2011.

P OA, R Guzman, M Cervantes, A Santiago. “Characterization of HER2 status by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC),” Methods Mol Biol. 1180(chapter 10), Press MF, pp. 181–207, Feb 2014.

I Fentiman “Male breast cancer: a review,” Ecancermedicalscience. pp.140, Mar 2009.

G.E Jr Lattin, R A Jesinger, L M Glassman “From the radiologic pathology archives: diseases of the male breast: radiologic-pathologic correlation,” Radiographics. pp. 461-489, Feb 2013.

KY Şafak “Mammography Findings of Male Breast Diseases,” The Journal of Breast Health. pp.106-110, April 2015.

V Dialani, J Baum, T S Mehta “Sonographic features of gynecomastia,” J Ultrasound Med. pp.539-547, Jun 2010.

MB Popli, V Popli, P Bahl, Y Solanki. “Pictorial essay: Mammography of the male breast,” The Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging. pp.278-281, Jan 2009.

F Draghi, CC Tarantino, L Madonia, G Ferrozzi. “Ultrasonogra- phy of the male breast,” J Ultrasound. pp.122-129, Feb 2011.

T Kazama, I Tabei, C Sekine. “Subareolar breast abcess in male patients: a report of two patients with a literature review,” Surgical case reports. pp.121-128, Dec2017.

E Iuanow, M Kettler, PJ Slanetz.. “ Spectrum of disease in the male breast,” AJR Am J Roentgenol. pp.247-259, May 2011.

S Yitta, CI Singer, HB Toth, CL Mercado “Image presentation. Sonographic appearances of benign and malignant male breast disease with mammographic and pathologic correlation,” J Ultrasound Med. pp. 931-947, Oct 2010.

M. Rosa, S Masood. “Cytomorphology of male breast lesions: diagnostic pitfalls and clinical implications,” Diagn Cytopathol. pp.179-184, Feb 2012.

C Nguyen,M D Kettler, M E Swirsky, et al “ Male breast disease: pictorial review with radiologic-pathologic correlation,” Radiographics. pp.763-779, May 2013.

L Chen, P K Chantra, et al “Imaging characteristics of malignant lesions of the male breast,”,Radiographics. pp.993-1006, Feb. 2006.

How to Cite
Costin, T., Drăghici, G., & Oprescu, S. (2019). MALE BREAST CANCER – CURRENT DIAGNOSTIC APPROACHES. Romanian Journal of Clinical Research, 2(1), 30-36.